Canine leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leshmania parasites transmitted by the bite of an infected sandfly. Canine leishmaniasis was first identified in Europe in 1903, and in 1940, 40% of all dogs in Rome were determined to be positive for leishmaniasis. Traditionally thought of as a disease only found near the Mediterranean basin, 2008 research claims new findings are evidence that canine leishmaniasis is currently expanding in continental climate areas of northwestern Italy, far from the recognized disease-endemic areas along the Mediterranean coasts. Cases of leishmaniasis began appearing in North America in 2000, and, as of 2008, Leishmania-positive dogs have been reported in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. CL is infectious between dogs and is also hereditary and is rapidly spreading around the globe. CL is usually lethal to dogs and is a characterized by its ability to spread from the skin to its internal organs. The annual market for the treatment of CL is estimated at approximately $100mm.